Jasmine Herd

I am from Twinsburg, Ohio which is a suburb outside of Cleveland.

Some of my favorite things to do on campus is hang out with my friends and be in the lab working on my IS.

I think educational psychology is a great integration of my current psychological background while still putting it in a new perspective.

My first idea is to look at the relationship between underfunded schools and college admission rates of students. I think this is important because underfunded schools can really limit a students direction in life by not providing the tools they need to get into college. The independent variable would be the amount of funding the school gets and the dependent variable would be amount of students that get into college. The population of interest would be high school in metropolitan areas (which tend to be underfunded).

Another idea I have is how having a white teachers teaching in a minority schools have a different effect than if minority teachers taught minority students. This is important because sometimes students will have the pressure of stereotypes being placed upon them by the white teacher or feel like they are unable to relate to the teachers. The independent variable would be whether the student of color has a white teacher of a teacher of color. The dependent variable would be test scores of the students when taught the same subject. The population of interest would be high schools where the majority of the teaching staff is white and the students are minorities.

Title: A Threat in the Air How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance

Citation: Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air. How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. The American Psychologist, 52(6), 613–629.


Dr. Claude Steele of Stanford University was the first to describe how stereotype threat negatively affects black students in an academic environment leading to lower test scores. He begins by describing how recurrent  stereotype threat like in math standardized testing leads to women decreased motivation and disidentification which in turn leads to lower test scores. This same concept he proposes applies to all black students in a school environment. His first focus was on intellectual performance in the domain in which negative group stereotypes apply. The two testable implications are: for domain-identified students, stereotype threat may interfere with their domain-related intellectual performance and reducing this threat in the performance setting, by reducing its interfering pressure, should improve the performance of otherwise stereotype-threatened students. The second focus was to explore how stereotype threat causes an increased disidentification with the identity (being black) that is being stereotyped. Through a review of different research he determined that this threat can in the short term negatively impact academic performance of black and female students in the long term cause disidentification with the identity. This article will be used to discuss what stereotype threat is conceptually.


Title: Effects of Stereotype Threat, Perceived Discrimination, and Examiner Race on Neuropsychological Performance: Simple as Black and White?

Citation: Thames, A. D., Hinkin, C. H., Byrd, D. A., Bilder, R. M., Duff, K. J., Mindt, M. R., … Streiff, V. (2013). Effects of Stereotype Threat, Perceived Discrimination, and Examiner Race on Neuropsychological Performance: Simple as Black and White? Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 19(5), 583–593. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355617713000076


In this study they looked at stereotype threat and the examiner and examinee racial disconnect between black and white participants. Participants were divided by race (black and white)  and were either assigned to a same race examiner or difference race examiner. From there groups were put into a stereotype threat and no threat group to create a 2x2x2 study (ethnicity x threat condition x examiner race). The participants took the perceived ethnic discrimination questionnaire and a neuropsychological assessment. They found that black participants in the threat condition with a white examiner performed significantly worse than other experimental groups. Doing this on a younger sample (college students) than previously done showed that stereotype threat can be detrimental across large age groups. This article will be used to show how black experience higher levels of stereotype threat when a white person is in an authoritative position.


Title: Assessed by a Teacher Like Me: Race, Gender and Subjective Evaluations

Citation: Ouazad, A. (2008). Assessed by a Teacher Like Me: Race, Gender and Subjective Evaluations. CEE DP 98. Centre for the Economics of Education. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED530049


This paper focused on whether teachers give better subjective evaluations to kids of their own race. They received the data from the 1998 study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics of the US Department of Education. They reported that teacher give higher grades to children of their own race. The effect of teacher evaluations (positive or negative) on academic performance was also evaluated and they found that positive evaluations led to significantly higher growth that in other students. Students that received negative performance evaluations showed less growth. They tested this using a longitudinal study by giving children a cognitive test in first grade and second grade.  It was also found that teachers give higher test scores to students of their own race. This article will be used to show that white teachers are biased towards their own race and how that can negatively impact black students in their class.


Title: Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

Citation: Wasserberg, M. J. (2014). Stereotype threat effects on African American children in an urban elementary school. Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 502–517. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2013.876224


In this study Wasserberg investigated how stereotype threat effects black children in urban elementary schools. He formulated 2 hypotheses on reading test performance: when children are aware of racial stereotypes and are given a reading test that is said to measure intelligence they will do worse than children who are not aware of stereotypes and children who identify more strongly with their identity will have lower scores than children who don’t identify as strongly. He then formulated 4 hypotheses about self efficacy and anxiety stating: framing the reading comprehension test as a test of intelligence will increase anxiety, decrease self efficacy which will both be affected by how much they identify with their identity. Participants were in 3rd, 4th, and 5th grade from an urban school and were given tests to determine levels for anxiety, self efficacy, domain identification (how well they think they are at reading), and stereotype awareness. He found that children who were aware of racial stereotypes performed worse than students were weren’t as aware. This article will be used to show how in a majority black environment students are still affected by stereotype threat and also that children are aware of stereotypes at a young age.


Title: Contending with legacy: Stereotype threat, racial identity, and school culture.
Citation: Lowe, A. N. (2007). Contending with legacy: Stereotype threat, racial identity, and school culture. ProQuest Information & Learning.

The goal of this study was to determine black and latinx high school students attitudes about stereotype threat and purpose possible solutions to deter this effect. Black and Latinx high school students were given a survey to assess their stereotype threat perceptions, racial identity, school culture perceptions, intelligence beliefs, and academic goals. They found that students strong self efficacy, school environment, intelligence beliefs, academic goals, and certain component of their racial identity can protect against stereotype threat. This article will be used to show even in high school students can still be affected by stereotype threat.


Title: Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children

Citation: Augoustinos, M., & Rosewarne, D. L. (2001). Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19(Pt1), 143–156. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151001165912


In this study young children were asses in order to determine if they were aware of racial  and cultural stereotypes. They predicted that children will show knowledge of stereotypes with 8-9 year olds showing more knowledge than 5-6 year olds. They also hypothesized that 8-9 year olds will have a better distinction of stereotype knowledge and personal beliefs thn 5-6 year olds. Finally, they predicted that all children will have racial awareness. Students were put into distraction free room with a white  instructor and given a standardized test along with images. They found that all children attributed positive attributes with white stimuli and negative attributes with black stimuli. Children who were 8-9 years old were found to differentiate between stereotypes and personal beliefs. This study will be used to show that kids are aware of stereotypes as soon as they enter school at 5 years old.


Title: An Analysis of a White Preservice Teacher’s Reflections on Race and Young Children Within an Urban School Context

Citation: Jackson, T. O., Bryan, M. L., & Larkin, M. L. (2016). An analysis of a White preservice teacher’s reflections on race and young children within an urban school context. Urban Education, 51(1), 60–81. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085914542659


This article examined how students of color in an urban school experience race in relation to their white assistant teachers through the journal entries of Melissa a white assistant teacher who taught in an urban elementary school. They focused on how resegregated urban schools, racial socialization, critical race theory, and  counter storytelling have effects on students of color. They explained that through the analyzation of Melissa’s journal that students are very aware of race at a young age. It was recommended that white teachers teaching in urban environments must be “equipped with tools to address race in the classroom” to prevents them from being or them attempting to be “color blind”. This article will be used as an example for the dynamic between white teachers and black students.


Title: Teachers’ Stereotypes of Asian, Black, and White Students

Citation: Chang, D. F., & Demyan, A. L. (2007). Teachers’ stereotypes of Asian, Black, and White students. School Psychology Quarterly, 22(2), 91–114. https://doi.org/10.1037/1045-3830.22.2.91


In this study stereotypes of asian, black and white students held by teachers of different races was studied. They believe that the stereotypes about theses groups that teacher hold result in disparities in educational outcomes. To study this they used 2 approaches: the diagnostic ratio approach which provided a measure of the individual teachers agreeance with mainstream stereotypes and a free response measure. They found that teachers attributed a generally positive asian stereotype consistent with the model  minority myth. Teachers were found to attribute positive and negative stereotypes to black students. This article will be used to show that black students are at higher risk for stereotype threat than asian minorities making them more vulnerable.


Title: Black students’ reactions to feedback conveyed by White and Black teachers.

Citation: Coleman, L. M., Jussim, L., & Isaac, J. L. (1991). Black students’ reactions to feedback conveyed by White and Black teachers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21(6), 460–481. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00531.x


This study tested the hypothesis that black students would view feedback from white and black teachers differently on how the teacher viewed their success or failure, how difficult the task was, ability and effort. Black undergraduate students were chosen to be evaluated on using an analogies test. It was found that black female students felt that white teachers assess their performance more negatively than black teachers. Negative feedback led all black students to think that the teachers held an incorrect negative belief about them which lead to the negative feedback. This study will be used to show that black students feel more negative responses from white teachers than black teachers. This will be used to set the stage of how white teachers can have a negative impact on back students.


Title: White Teachers’ Role in Sustaining the School-to Prison Pipeline: Recommendations for Teacher Education

Citation: Bryan, N. (2017). Erratum to: White Teachers’ Role in Sustaining the School-to-Prison Pipeline: Recommendations for Teacher Education. The Urban Review, 49(2), 346–346. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-017-0416-y


From observation the author saw a mistreatment of black students in K-12 classroom which he believe facilitates the school to prison pipeline. He observed the over disciplining of black boys for minor infractions. He provides anecdotal evidence on the disproportionate reprimanding for black students. He also states that since most teachers are middle aged white females the study should just focus on white teachers. An emphasis on teacher preparation was also stated to avoid teachers from using their negative stereotypes in the classroom. He explains that the overdicsplingin of black male students by white teachers lead to more expulsions, suspensions, and assigning to special education classrooms. This paper will shine an important light on how urban elementary school are the beginning of the school to prison pipeline and black male students are at high risk for entering the pipeline.


Title: Teacher and student race as a predictor for negative feedback during instruction

Citation: Scott, T. M., Gage, N., Hirn, R., & Han, H. (2019). Teacher and student race as a predictor for negative feedback during instruction. School Psychology, 34(1), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.1037/spq0000251


In this study the possibility of black students being reprimanded based on the race of the teacher was studied. Building off the evidence that black students are suspended at a higher rate than white students an empirical study was conducted. Teacher-student dyads were created in elementary school students and high school students to examine this. Black students received more negative feedback than white students with black males receiving significantly higher negative feedback than black female students. This was found regardless of the type (good or bad) of behavior the student was doing. This article provides further evidence for the implicit bias that white teachers have.


Title: ‘I want to do the right thing but what is it?’: White teachers’ experiences with African American students.

Citation:Henfield, M. S., & Washington, A. R. (2012). “I want to do the right thing but what is it?”: White teachers’ experiences with African American students. Journal of Negro Education, 81(2), 148–161. https://doi.org/10.7709/jnegroeducation.81.2.0148


This was a qualitative study that focused on white middle school teachers in predominantly white school with an increasing black population. The researcher met with black students once a week for individual and group counseling, conducted focus group meetings, and did naturalistic observations. White teachers expressed awareness of the growing diversity and they stated that they were having to deal with problems they never experienced before. Teachers felt race related conversations were uncomfortable and avoided them at all costs. Unlike in other studies the teachers were reluctant to reprimand black students for fear of being accused of racially profiling. This article shows another side that when teachers have no experience with black students there is a lack of reprimanding for behaviors that require a consequence and they try to not engage in racial discussions.


Title: The Penalty of Being a Young Black Girl: Kindergarten Teachers’ Perceptions of Children ys Problem Behaviors and Student-Teacher Conflict by the Intersection of Race and Gender

Citation: Wasserberg, M. J. (2014). Stereotype threat effects on African American children in an urban elementary school. Journal of Experimental Education, 82(4), 502–517. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2013.876224


The author used representative data of kindergarteners to examine how teachers reaming kindergarteners behaviors in respect to race and gender. It is said that there is a “female advantage” that describes gender inequalities in education. The author proposes that black girls are left out of this advantage. He finds that black girls are judged more harshly than other races of girls. It also showed that non-black girls did have a “female advantage” over white boys. It was also found that black boys had higher problem behaviors than white and latino boys. This article will be in conjunction with the articles about black boy to show black girls are also specifically victimized by biases.


Title: African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

Citation: Hotchkins, B. K. (2016). African American males navigate racial microaggressions. Teachers College Record, 118(6).


This study focuses on how the over disciplining of black males in high school lead to them dealing with the microaggressions from their teachers and administrative staff. The effect of this on black male students self image and academic performance. A qualitative comparative case study with narrative expression was used to examine this. Focus groups, observations, and interviews were used to gather data. He found that black male students tried to avoid the microaggressions by making friendships and alliances with other groups that are racialized. This article will be used to show how white over reprimanding of black students also exposes them to micro aggressions they can internalize and can negatively impacts them.  


Title: Selling students short: Racial differences in teachers’ evaluations of high, average, and low performing students

Citation: Irizarry, Y. (2015). Selling students short: Racial differences in teachers’ evaluations of high, average, and low performing students. Social Science Research, 52, 522–538. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.04.002

This study examined how students cognitive abilities interact with teachers perception and race. The researcher used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort to examine this. They predicted that students intelligence completely determined teachers assumptions according to their race. She found that other races (white, latinx, asian) received higher ratings from their teachers than black students. She also talks about the tremendous weight teacher evaluations come with and they are regarded as the only valid source on student progress. This article will be used as further evidence that white teachers provided lower scores to black students than any other race.

Lit Outline


  • School to prison pipeline  idea and how is has become a growing concern.
  • What is school to prison pipeline?
  • What are some proposed causes?
  • One cause may be white teachers stereotypes of black students hindering the academic growth.
  • This study will examine the role of stereotype threat from white teachers on black students in an urban school setting.

Stereotype and Stereotype threat

  • What is a stereotype.
  • How powerful can they be and also how persistent are they.
  • What is stereotype threat
  • Examples of the harm stereotype threat can have specifically as it pertains to the power dynamic that it normally follows. (race)
  • Discuss the importance of understanding this and trying to stop it.

Presence of white teachers in the classroom and minority students

  • Stats of white teachers in the classroom
  • White teachers experience in the classroom with minority students
  • And minority students experience in the classroom
  • Talk about the behaviors that contribute to stereotype threat both small things ( spending more time with one student than another) ( not pushing the black students aka being ok with their low grades) and overt things

Current study

  • How ST can effect academic achievement
  • Black students are more at risk with white teachers than black teachers for ST
  • In the current study the presence of white teachers in a minority classroom effect on academic achievement due to stereotype threat will be examined


IS Symposium Assignment

I visited an Africana studies major whose IS focused on the “Historical Black Caricatures and How they led to Black Lives Not Mattering in America”.With her poster presentation she also had pictures that connected her IS together. The pictures on her poster were of caricatures that included the Mammy,Jim Crow, and the Pickaninny. Through these and other caricatures she connected them to the devaluation of black lives in America and how that led to the lack of urgency in the terrible police brutality state in America. She used current events and rhetoric to show how these caricatures have has a lasting impact on this country. Her use of current events drew people in and grounded them in something they knew. On the table in front of her poster she had images of black people who have recently been victims of police brutality. These images provided real evidence for her claims she made. When she gave her speech to on-lookers her emotion made it easy to listen and stay engaged. The only negative I have is that she had a lot of text on her poster which overall didn’t make it attention grabbing.

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