I’m from Cleveland Ohio
Some of my favorite things to do on campus are hangout with my friends in my sorority, Zeta Phi Gamma, Lowry sit, and workout
I am interested in educational psychology because my minor is psych and I think it would be interesting to learn about children and the ways they learn in a school environment
Potential topics for research paper:
1. How does multitasking effect memory in school aged adolescents? I am interested in this topic because the prevalence of multitasking has increased, and is thought to hinder learning. However, some students say that listening to music and other forms of multitasking help them study.
2. Are operant conditioning practices effective in the workplace? I am interested in this topic because teachers and faculty have differing views of weather or not reinforcement and punishment actually help to correct students behavior in the classroom. However, not many studies have focused on this approach in applying it to the workforce. This is also more relevant to major of business economics.
3. Can you effectively teach someone to increase the capacity of their working memory? This is interesting to me because I took a memory and cognition lab last year where we discussed working memory at great length. Also, some people claim that by using chunking and other memory aids, one can grow their memory capacity to an astonishing length.
1. Silverman, K. (2004). Exploring the Limits of Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction. The Behavior Analyst, 27(2), pp. 209-230.
The purpose for this study was to figure out if operant conditioning would be an effective treatment plan for cocaine addicts. This study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland which has a high rate of cocaine use. The methods of this study draw from a sample of Baltimore cocaine addicts who are low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. Participants in this study in the treatment group were able to receive monetary reinforcement for providing clean urine samples. Those that were un-clean could not receive this monetary reward. The findings showed that increasing the monetary reinforcement magnitude and duration increased its effectiveness at getting addicts to provide clean urine samples. Also, this method reduced the rates of relapses when the monetary rewards had longer durations. These results imply that integrating this type of reinforcement into employment settings could work to reinforce drug abstinence.
This article relates to my topic because it discusses reinforcement methods used on adults, whereas most studies focus on students. Their findings help my topic by showing that drug addicted adults can be reinforced to stop using drugs when monetary rewards are offered. This shows that reinforcement methods can be successfully used on adults. My study builds on this by tying the monetary rewards to wages and placing it into a work setting, instead of the participants home setting.
2. Brief, A.P. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace, Annu. Rev. Psychology, 53:279-307
This study was conducted to analyze weather or not organizational rewards and punishments had an effect on moods and emotions of employees in that organization. This study utilized the methods of analyzing if managements use of operant conditioning impacted employees happiness based on a survey employees filled out. Findings were that guilt, anger, and pride were influenced by specific combinations of rewards or punishments and procedures. This suggests that to understand reactions to organizational rewards and punishments, one should take a more justice oriented approach.
This article relates to my topic because it looks at operant conditionings effect on the emotions of an employee in the workplace. These findings help me to think about my topic by seeing which methods they used in order to find their results. My study could build on these findings by seeing which specific types of rewards or punishments the employees respond to.
3. Manrique de Lara, P. Z. (2006). Fear in Organizations: Does Intimidation by Formal Punishment Mediate the Relationship Between Interactional Justice and Workplace Internet Deviance. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6).
The purpose for this study was to look at the relationship between how a person is treated by authority and that employees internet deviance during work hours. Internet deviance is considered using the internet to look up anything that is unrelated to work. This study hypothesizes that fear of punishment used for intimidation would actually increase deviant workplace behavior. This study used methods of collecting data from 147 participants of a non-teaching staff at a public university. Then the researchers sent out a questionnaire to the participants. Findings showed that interactional justice (the degree to which the people affected by a decision are treated by dignity and respect) is an antecedent of one’s fear of punishment. This relationship mediates the relationship between interactional justice and workplace internet deviance.
This study relates to my research because it directly looks at how punishment or fear of punishment can effect workplace activity by ways of cyberloafing. It also helps to see their methods that involved using a survey. Their findings help me to think of my topic more clearly by showing how a variable like internet deviance can be used to see punishments effect on employees. My study will build on this study’s findings by focusing on reinforcement and not just punishment.
4. Silverman K., Svikis, D., Robles, E., Stitzer, M., & Begelow, G. (2001). A Reinforcement-Based Therapeutic Workplace for the Treatment of Drug Abuse: Six-Month Abstinence Outcomes. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9(1), pp. 14-23.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a Therapeutic Workplace to treat drug abuse, rather than the typical rehab center. The methods used were to link salary to abstinence by having participants provide drug-free urine samples in order to gain a job. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients were assigned to either the treatment or control group. In the treatment group, they could work three hours every weekday for six months if they remained drug-free. Their findings showed that the Therapeutic Workplace almost doubled the patients abstinence from drugs, which proved to be a significant find.
This study relates to mine because it is looking at how offering a positive reinforcement of wages and a job can impact an adult drug addicts rehabilitation. These findings help me to think about my topic by showing how the incentive of money can be very important for working adults. However, my study builds on this one by not focusing on drug addicts, but focusing on already employed adults.
5. Silverman K., Svikis, D., Wong, C., Hampton, J., Stitzer, M., & Begelow, G. (2002). A Reinforcement-Based Therapeutic Workplace for the Treatment of Drug Abuse: Three-Year Abstinence Outcomes. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10(3), pp. 228-240.
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term Therapeutic Workplace effects on heroin and cocaine addicts. They used participants who were unemployed, treatment-resistant young mothers, addicted to cocaine or heroin. They were paid to work or train in the Therapeutic Workplace if they could give drug-free urine samples daily. Also, they were either assigned randomly to the treatment or control group, with a maximum of working up to three years. Their results found that the treatment group had higher levels of abstinence based on their urine samples. The cocaine control group had 28% versus 54% in the treatment group for abstinence rates. For heroin groups the numbers were 37% and 60% respectively. These findings show that the positive incentive of work and wages can be an effective long-term treatment for drug addicts.
This study relates to my topic because it also looks at a positive reinforcements effect on adults. It is also a large reinforcement because it is very challenging to quit drugs. These findings help me to think about my topic by showing that adults can be effected by reinforcement, and money is a large incentive for people. My research will build on this study by not focusing on drug addicts, but on employed person’s and which incentives they respond to.
6. Silverman, K., DeFulio, A., & Sigurdsson, S. (2012). Maintenance of Reinforcement to Address the Chronic Nature of Drug Addiction. Preventive Medicine, 55, pp. S46-S53.
This study was conducted to see if abstinence reinforcement can initiate drug abstinence, while cutting down relapse rates. They used employment reinforcement or usual care programs, to see which was more effective. This study drew from a population of individuals addicted to cocaine or alcohol. There were 47 people in the starting cocaine abstinence and 51 in the maintaining abstinence part. There were 124 individuals in the alcohol abstinence group. They drew their sample from unemployed cocaine users who were enrolled in methadone programs, and randomly assigned to the work program or the usual care program. Their study found that when linking clean drug tests to obtaining and keeping a job with wages, drug addiction dropped. This employment based reinforcement was found to cut down the rates of drug use as well as preventing relapse. Further results showed that employment based reinforcement also promoted abstinence from alcohol and homeless alcohol dependent adults. This employment incentive worked better than a normal drug therapy program, that most addicts are sent to for rehabilitation.
This study relates to my topic because it also looks at the effect of positive reinforcement on adults, with a work based perspective. It will help me think of my topic more clearly by describing which methods they used when conducting their research, which could help to inform my methods section. My study will build on theirs by looking at non drug addicted adults, as well as already employed adults to see how they respond to operant conditioning.
7. Donlin, W., Knealing, T., Needham, M., Wong, C., & Silverman, K. (2008). Attendance Rates in a Workplace Predict Subsequent Outcome of Employment – Based Reinforcement of Cocaine Abstinence in Methadone Patients. Journal of Theoretical Social Psychology, 41, Pp. 499-516.
This study was conducted to see if attendance rates in the workplace predicted the outcome of employment-based reinforcement of cocaine abstinence. This study used participants who were unemployed adults in Baltimore methadone programs who had used cocaine. They were allowed to work for four hours every weekday and earn $10 per hour for 26 weeks. During an orientation period, participants gave urine sample but could work regardless of the results. However, after the initial period, they had to provide clean results in order to work and receive maximum pay. They found that the orientation period attendance was independently associated with the urine results of cocaine abstinence under the employment-based abstinence reinforcement plan. This shows that attendance could measure the reinforcing value of employment and be used to show how to improve employment-based reinforcement of non-drug use.
This study relates to my topic because it looks at how employment along with wages can effect one’s drug use, as well as attendance. Their findings help me think of my topic more clearly by showing another way to measure employee performance linking to incentives, could be through attendance. My study will build on these findings by not focusing on a drug use population, and putting the test into a more employment-based area.
8. Schumacher, J. E., Utley, J., Sutton, L., Horton, T., Hamer, T., You, Z., & Klapow, J. C. (2013). Boosting workplace stair utilization: A study of incremental reinforcement. Rehabilitation Psychology, 58(1), 81-86. doi:10.1037/a0031764
This study was conducted to determine if taking the stairs at work could be incentivized by the provision of an employer-sponsored reward system. In this system, employees could earn points that can be turned in for merchandise. The design of this study was to implement a stair utilization in one workplace as part of a health incentive program. Participants were observed for six months before the program, and six months after. This study found that the stair use for all members for all days increased from 5,070 to 38,900, and the average number of steps per day increased from 39 to 301. This was a huge increase in stair taking as a result of this incentive program.
This study relates to my topic because it is looking at the effects of positive reinforcement used in the workplace. These findings help me to think about my topic by showing that non-drug using adults can be influenced by reinforcement in the workplace. However, my study will build on these findings by not monitoring exercise or stair taking as an outcome.
9. Marsick, V. (1988). Learning in the Workplace: The Case for Reflectivity and Critical Reflectivity. Adult Education Quarterly, 38(4), pp. 187-198.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of behaviorism in the workplace for learning purposes. The methods of this study looked at how behaviorism is used to initiate performance, based on raises or promotions given out. Organizations are changing rapidly due to increases in technology and changes in the external environment. This study looks to find weather or not raises and promotions are still valid methods of operant conditioning in the workplace. Their findings suggest that these are still solid forms of positive reinforcement that help employees to work harder at their current position.
This article relates to my topic because it is looking at operant conditionings effect on employees in the workplace. It helps me to think about my topic by showing how raises and promotions could be thought of as tools to promote productivity. However, my study will build upon this study by offering a more detailed methods approach.
10. Nguyen, T. (2012, December 20). Classical and Operant Conditionings – Their Applications in HR Management. Retrieved from https://oanhnguyenwritings.wordpress.com/2012/12/25/classical-and-operant-conditionings-their-applications-in-hr-management/
The purpose of this study was to examine how operant conditioning takes place in the workplace, specifically in the role of human resources management. The methods of this study first identified the goals and objective that the organization wanted to achieve. The next step is to identify which type of conditioning to apply, positive or negative reinforcement, or punishment. When trying to decrease accidents in the workplace, they found that offering a positive incentive like a buffet for no accidents in a month, was effective. Furthermore, if the buffet lead to a desirable outcome for the employees, the law of effect shows that they are more likely to repeat their behavior of remaining accident free, in hopes of another reward.
This research relates to my topic because it shows how positive reinforcement can be effectively used in the workplace to achieve an employer’s goal. These findings help to think about my topic, by proving that operant conditioning can be utilized to the benefit of employers in a workplace. My study would build on their findings by including negative reinforcement and possibly punishment.
11. Hinkin, T.R., and C.A. Schriesheim. (2004). If You Don’t Hear From Me You Know You Are Doing Fine: The Effects of Management Nonresponse to Employee Performance. Cornell Hotel & Restaurant Administration Quarterly, pp. 362–372.
This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of managers giving feedback or giving no comments, in hospitality organizations. They looked at 243 employees at two different hospitability organizations. The control group got no feedback, while the treatment group received positive and or negative feedback depending on their performance. Their findings showed that a positive relationship existed between positive and negative feedback and workers satisfaction, as well as performance. They also discovered that punishment had a small but positive relationship with satisfaction and effectiveness. They also discovered that giving no feedback had a direct negative relationship with effectiveness and satisfaction.
This study relates to my topic because it shows positive, negative, and punishment reinforcement’s effects on employees satisfaction and productivity. These findings help me to think about my topic by showing a possible way to include all three forms of reinforcement in one study. My research will build off of this study by looking at an organization that is not affiliated with hospitality.
12. Alavosius, P., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1986). The Effects of Performance Feedback on the Safety of Client Lifting and Transfer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19(3). Pp. 261-267.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not feedback would enhance safety, due to operant conditioning. The methods utilized were giving individuals written and verbal performance feedback. They analyzed two client-transfer techniques as well as six direct service providers on-the-job performance per week. They also looked at consumer satisfaction and the costs of procedures. Their results found that feedback was consistently associated with improvements in safety performance. Furthermore, even as feedback gradually faded out, these improvements remained. The participants also rated the feedback procedure as helpful.
This study relates to my topic because it focuses on how positive and negative feedback can influence a worker’s performance. Their findings help me to think about my topic by showing how verbal feedback could be a possible method to use for operant conditioning. However, my study will build upon this one by not focusing on workplace safety as an outcome of the experiment.
13. Chhokar, J., & Wallin, J. (1984). Improving Safety Through Applied Behavior Analysis. Journal of Safety Research, 15, pp. 141-151.
This study aimed to improve safety in industrial plants through using applied behavior analysis. The researchers analyzed the behavioral safety performance of all employees in one industrial plant and observed and recorded their behavior. They found 35 specific key behaviors. The researchers implemented a behavior analysis package that included goal setting and feedback. Their results found that using a behavioral approach to workplace safety, does increase safety. Specifically, feedback was shown to decrease workplace accidents.
This study relates to my topic because it also is measuring the effects that feedback has on workplace performance. It helps me to think about my topic by showing how feedback has been shown in multiple studies, to have an impact on behavior. My study will build upon this one by not measuring workplace safety as an outcome variable.
14. Omomia, O., & Omomia, T. (2014). Relevance of Skinner’s Theory of Reinforcement on Effective School Evaluation and Management. European Journal of Psychological Studies, 4(4), pp. 174-180.
The purpose of this study was to find out if Skinner’s theory of reinforcement could be taken out of the classroom and applied to the management of schools. Their methodology was to have administrators analyze the performance of teachers, and give them meaningful feedback, whether it be positive or negative. Their findings showed that this feedback reinforcement, positive and negative, had value. The teachers performances improved after receiving this feedback from their superiors.
This study relates to mine by showcasing how reinforcement can be used in a multitude of work settings to increase employee performance. It helps me think about my topic by showing a new occupation to look into, as well as furthering the claims that feedback helps performance. My study will build upon this one by focusing on a different type of workplace.
15. Fellner, D., & Sulzer-Azaroff, B. (1984). Increasing Industrial Safety Practices and Conditions Through Posted Feedback. Journal of Safety Research, 15, pp. 7-21.
The purpose of this article was to examine the effects that posted feedback would have on workplace safety. This was conducted by taking data once a week on 24 practices and 7 conditions. Furthermore, data on injuries were also collected monthly. This process continued for six months. Their results showed that over half of the 17 divisions of the mill they looked at, showed improvement in safety. Also, safe practices in the workplace increased after the employees were given feedback for two months, and injuries were reduced by half.
This research relates to my study because it looks at the use of incentives on adults in the labor force. Their findings help me to think about my topic more clearly by showing how large the effects of feedback can be, which could be a dimension I use in my study. My study will build upon these findings by examining the use of operant conditioning in a different workplace setting.
This research is going to investigate whether or not operant conditioning increases job satisfaction and attendance in the work place. This will be a quantitative and multiple measures methods study, utilizing an employee filled out survey to rank job satisfaction, and a clock in – out system to measure attendance. The independent variables used will be raises (positive reinforcement), days off of work (negative reinforcement), and extra tasks (punishment). I am choosing to use the population of employees at a corporate office because a study on this population has not be done before, and it closely relates to my business economics major.
Literature Review – Final Proposal
Productivity in the workplace has constantly been a reoccurring topic in almost every academic field. America in general, is consistently trying to improve productivity in order to increase GDP and maintain one of the world’s strongest economies. However, little research has actually been conducted on what factors would improve employees productivity in the workplace. This study will focus on reinforcement as a factor in work productivity.
Productivity has proven to play such a large role in the United States society, because America is constantly striving to maintain the world’s strongest economy. However, little research has been done thus far on productivity in the workplace. Most studies conducted on this topic utilized number of days worked as a measure of productivity (Donlin 2008, Silverman 2001, Silverman 2002, Silverman 2004, & Silverman 2012). The more days an employee works, the more productive they will be because they are performing their job. The population that has mostly been used for this type of research has been participants who are addicted to drugs. It was found that by working and increasing the amount of days worked, their drug use has decreased, while productivity increased (Donlin 2008, Silverman 2001, Silverman 2002, Silverman 2004, & Silverman 2012).
Attendance has been the most used variable to measure productivity in the workplace (Donlin 2008, Silverman 2001, Silverman 2002, Silverman 2004, & Silverman 2012). This has been the dependent variable utilized by most studies, in order to measure productivity. If an employee is not at work, they cannot be productive in that work environment, therefore their productivity would decrease. Attendance has been utilized by these previous studies in order to track productivity, to see if their designed incentive plans are working. Attendance is also easily measured through a clock in and clock out system, making it easy to operationalize and keep track of. Most of the studies that utilized attendance in the workplace, looked at drug addicts as their participants. This was done in order to see if the incentive of employment and wages would be strong enough to stop their drug use, and increase their workplace attendance. If they attend work, their productivity will be increased. However, a present employee is not always a productive employee if they are extremely dissatisfied with their position or company.
Satisfaction in the workplace also relates to productivity. If an employee is satisfied with their job and their relationship with superiors as well as peers, they will perform better and have increased productivity. A couple of studies utilized satisfaction as a dependent variable, and operationalized it through a self-filled out survey that was administered to employees (Brief 2002 & Manrique de Lara 2006). Brief’s study found that feelings of guilt, anger, and pride were influenced by specific combinations of rewards or punishments and procedures. This shows that satisfaction can be greatly influenced by management and their reward systems. Another study conducted by Manrique de Lara, looked at the relationship between how an employee is treated by authority and their internet deviance during work hours. They found that the degree to which employees who are affected by a decision are treated with dignity and respect is directly related to their fear of punishment. It is this relationship that mediates the relationship between their treatment and work place internet deviance. A couple other articles looked at feedback as a link to satisfaction and overall productivity (Alavosius 1986, Chhokar 1984, Fellner 1984, Hinkin 2004, & Omomia 2014). All of these studies found a positive relationship between positive and negative feedback and workers satisfaction and productivity. On a smaller scale, punishment also had a positive relationship with satisfaction and performance. These studies also found that even as feedback gradually faded out, the improvements in productivity and satisfaction remained. These results show that feedback does not need to be constant in order to be effective to improve satisfaction and productivity. More specifically, Alavosius’s study found that while receiving feedback enhanced employee safety, it also increased consumer satisfaction and reduced the costs of procedures. This is an important finding because it shows that even the customer experience is enhanced through operant conditioning practices on employees, and the costs are lower. Aside from looking at a safety perspective, Omomia’s study looked at teachers within the classroom and classroom management. Adminstrators analyzed the performance of teachers and proceeded to give them positive and negative feedback. Their results showed that no matter which type of feedback was given, the teachers performances improved. This shows that operant conditioning practices and their effect on satisfaction and productivity can be applied to a number of settings and participants.
This aspect of a satisfaction rating is geared more towards the affect side of the workplace, and how attitudes can influence productivity. Measuring satisfaction via a self-reported survey might not be as reliable as measuring attendance, because employees could lie about their actual satisfaction in their workplace.
Behaviorism is an overarching psychological theory that believes that in order to perceive changes, one has to physically see them, hence watching the subjects behavior. Operant conditioning is a part of behaviorism that focuses on associating a behavior and an outcome that will be either rewarded or punished. There are three kinds of operant conditioning practices; punishment, positive, and negative reinforcement. Punishment is used to stop a behavior, by either adding something unpleasant or taking something pleasant away. Positive reinforcement is used to continue a behavior, by rewarding it through giving the subject what they want. Negative reinforcement is also used to continue a behavior, by taking away something the subject does not desire. After this method has been utilized, the subject will learn to associate that particular behavior with a pleasant or unpleasant outcome. This is a method of learning, solely focused on observable behavior.
Applied to the workplace
Not many studies have researched behaviorism within the workplace. Those studies that have, mainly focus on drug addicted adults (Donlin 2008, Silverman 2001, Silverman 2002, Silverman 2004, & Silverman 2012). In those studies, the focus was on whether or not behaviorism centered drug rehab programs were more successful at initiating and sustaining drug abstinence than traditional drug rehabilitation programs. Behaviorism was applied by offering the participants positive reinforcement in the form on wages through employment, if they were able to provide drug free urine samples. They were tested daily for drug use, and when the results were clean, they were rewarded through being allowed temporary employment for the duration of the day and received wages. These studies were found to be very successful, more so than traditional drug rehabilitation programs, at both initiating and sustaining drug abstinence. A study conducted in Baltimore found that increasing the monetary reinforcement magnitude and duration increased its effectiveness at getting addicts to provide clean urine samples (Silverman, 2004). Also, this method reduced the rates of relapses when the monetary rewards had longer durations. This suggests that a more permanent employment offer can have a larger positive effect on reducing drug use.
Branching out from the drug addiction studies, a study by Schumacher focused on whether or not incremental reinforcement would boost workplace stair utilization (Schumacher, 2013). The design of this study was to implement a stair utilization in one workplace as part of a health incentive program. In this study, employees could earn points that could be turned in for merchandise. Their findings showed that stair use for all participants increased from 5,070 to 38,900 and the average number of steps a day increased from 39 to 301, which was a huge increase. A study by Marsick, also looked into the effectiveness of behaviorism in the workplace for learning (Marsick, 1988). They researched how behaviorism can be used to initiate performance, based on raises or promotions given out. Their results showed that positive reinforcement like raises, is a reliable way to increase productivity. Lastly, Nguyen conducted a similar study, but also included negative reinforcement and punishment in order to decrease accidents in the workplace (Nguyen 2012). Their results showed that offering a positive incentive like a buffet for an accident free month, was effective in reducing accidents on the job. Furthermore, the law of effect was showcased here because after the buffet, employees remained accident free in hopes of another reward. All of these studies show how basic behaviorism practices can be introduced into the workplace.
Previous research has shown that when introducing reinforcement as a form of drug rehabilitation, the results are better than traditional rehab methods. Specifically, introducing positive reinforcement in the form of wages, through employment. When utilizing this method, attendance rates in the workplace increase, because the participants want the wages, and will increase productivity. Furthermore, satisfaction has also been studied as an outcome of behaviorism. Surveys were used in order to measure satisfaction. This research found that feedback, positive and negative, as well as relationships with supervisors and coworkers largely impacted one’s satisfaction with work and influenced their productivity. However, most of this research has been conducted on drug addicted participants and non-office workplace settings. Due to that, little research has been conducted on drug free participants and in an office workplace setting. Therefore, not much is known about how an employee would behave in that situation and with no drug use history.
This study aims to address those disparities in the research. This research is going to investigate whether or not operant conditioning increases job satisfaction and attendance in the work place. This will be a quantitative and multiple measures methods study, utilizing an employee filled out survey to rank job satisfaction, and a clock in – out system to measure attendance. The independent variables used will be raises (positive reinforcement), days off of work (negative reinforcement), and extra tasks (punishment). The population of interest is office employees who are not addicted to drugs. This is the chosen population because it has never been studied before. The hypothesis is that the introduction of incentives through punishment, positive, and negative reinforcement will increase worker satisfaction and productivity, measured by attendance. Stronger correlations are predicted for positive and negative reinforcement, compared to punishment because punishment can discourage workers, hurting their reported satisfaction.
The poster I looked at was about Parental Involvement’s effects on college academic achievement. She used a one way ANOVA to analyze any gender differences in answering the puzzles she used. She also used a one way ANOVA to look at if students felt their parents parenting style had an effect on their performance in this study. Her hypothesis was not supported because there was no significant difference in parenting styles effect on academic achievement. I think this study worked well because she thought to analyze any gender differences, which did prove to be significant with girls doing better than boys. However, I would be interested to look into the break down of parenting styles, meaning how many participants had which types of parenting styles. I also think using a larger and more diverse sample of non Wooster students would be interesting to look at because Wooster students are usually high achieving.