Claire Thompson (she/her/hers)
- I am an international student from Bermuda.
- On campus, I am on the Fighting Scots Dance Team and the Women’s Ultimate Frisbee Team, and I am also the house coordinator for the Cornerstone Playlab program house! I also love hanging out with my friends.
- I am interested in educational psychology because I want to work with children in my future, focusing on childhood bullying.
- Looking at the long term effects of childhood bullying. I want to look at how a person’s self-esteem/mental health/level of extroversion when they are in college is affected by being bullied in elementary school, or by not being bullied. The population will be students aged 18-22 and currently enrolled in the College of Wooster. This topic is very important to me because bullying is a major problem that is often not taken seriously, especially when it comes to looking at how it can impact the rest of someone’s life.
- Looking at the benefits of a Montessori school versus a private school for children with ADHD. For this study, the population would be children with ADHD in both Montessori schools and private schools. Data will be collected by interviews with the children and looking at their grades. This topic is important to me because I was diagnosed with ADHD in 5th grade and I found a lot of benefit by attending a Montessori school, however, many people have opposing views.
- Article for critique: https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/23100410.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A1320e88b392a4eb5608f3237690f78d8
“This study will investigate whether childhood bullying victimization is associated with social anxiety disorder in college students. Participants will be undergraduate students at small Midwestern colleges. The study will be quantitative, using a survey questionnaire. The independent variable will be whether they were bullied or not (determined before the questionnaire is given) and the dependent variable will be the effects of social anxiety disorder in friendships and relationships in college. This topic is very important to me because it is a major problem that is often not taken seriously, especially when it comes to looking at how it impacts the rest of a person’s life.”
- Adams, F. D., & Lawrence, G. J. (2011). Bullying victims: The effects last into college. American Secondary Education, 40(1).
The study was done to determine if people who were bullied in school continue to show the effects of being bullied when they go to college. The researchers first divided the participants into two groups (bullied or not bullied) and then a survey-questionnaire was administered. Participants were undergraduate students at a Midwestern state college. They found that bullying continues into college, as did the effects. This was critical to developing my method because it demonstrated the benefit of initially dividing the participants into two groups.
- Carlisle, N., & Rofes, E. (2007). School Bullying: Do Adult Survivors Perceive Long-Term Effects? Traumatology, 13(1), 16–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534765607299911
The study was done to further investigate the lasting effects of childhood bullying. The method was a qualitative study, with a quantitative evaluation of the survey data. Participants were adult males, all of them 23 years or older, who went to school either in the United States, United Kingdom, or Australia. Over 90% of the participants reported being bullied at school, and the majority of them being bullied for at least 5 years. The researchers found that the effects lasted with the participants, most commonly high levels of shame, anxiety, and relational difficulties. They also concluded that the effects may be similar to those experienced by survivors of child abuse. This study is useful to my research because it shows that the effects from bullying on a more global scale, and that there are lasting effects of bullying regardless of what country the bullying occurred in.
- Erwin, B. A., Heimberg, R. G., Marx, B. P., & Franklin, M. E. (2006). Traumatic and socially stressful life events among persons with social anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20(7), 896–914. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2005.05.006
This study looked at the frequency of re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyper-arousal symptoms as a result of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Participants were individuals who were diagnosed with SAD as well as controls who were confirmed to not have SAD. The participants were given a highly stressful event and their responses were recorded. The results showed that people with SAD and PTSD responded differently than those without, showing that there is an effect. This is beneficial for my understanding of the effects of SAD, especially when combined with PTSD.
- Gabel, E. P. (2007). The prevalence and impact of bullying behaviors on middle and high school students: Grade, gender, and ethnic differences. ProQuest.
This study explored the prevalence and impact of bullying. A self-report study was conducted on students in 6th through 12th grade, which assessed school climate and the effect of bullying. They found that bullying happens equally between males and females, and that males are bullied more often by other males. Additionally, that males tend to be bullied physically more than females, who are more often bullied through relational techniques. This benefits my research because it shows the breakdown of how bullying occurs.
- Guerin, S., & Hennessy, E. (2002). Pupils’ definitions of bullying. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 17(3), 249–261. Retrieved from JSTOR.
The study was conducted to examine pupils’ definitions of bullying in primary school. The participants were children in their final two years of primary school, and the study was qualitative, using interviews to determine the children’s perceptions on bullying behaviors, importance of repetition and intervention, the effects, and the role of provocation and power. They found that definitions created by previous research are much different than those of pupils experiencing the bullying. This is important to my study as having an accurate definition of bullying will be important for developing my survey.
- Hakami, R. M., Mahfouz, M. S., Adawi, A. M., Mahha, A. J., Athathi, A. J., Daghreeri, H. H., … Areeshi, N. A. (2018). Social anxiety disorder and its impact in undergraduate students at Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. Mental Illness, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/mi.2017.7274
This study looked at the prevalence, severity, disability, and quality of life of students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) at a university in Saudi Arabia. Participants completed four different, well-known measures (Social Phobia Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, and the WHO Quality of Life – BREF questionnaire). They found that 28% of the participants tested positive for SAD, with 10.5% of them showing severe symptoms. Additionally, students who tested positive for SAD reported having significant disabilities in work, family, and social areas, and that it negatively affects their quality of life. This study is important for my project because it shows the prevalence of SAD and how much it is under diagnosed.
- Harris, S., & Petrie, G. (2002). A Study of Bullying in the Middle School. NASSP Bulletin, 86(633), 42–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/019263650208663304
The study looked at bullying behaviors in 8th grade students in a southern city. Participants were observed by teachers during their physical education class. The researchers found that 92% of the participants reported being bullied either ‘sometimes’ or ‘often’. They also observed that students being bullied demonstrated more difficulty making friends, worse relationships with classmates, and higher levels of loneliness than bullies. The study is important to my research because it shows the prevalence of bullying in middle school and the immediate impact on students being bullied. I will build on this research by looking at the future impacts.
- Harris, S., Petrie, G., & Willoughby, W. (2002). Bullying among 9th graders: An exploratory study. NASSP Bulletin, 86(630), 3-14.
This study was conducted to look at the effects of bullying behaviors among 9th grade students. Participants completed a survey which asked about bullying at their school. They found that around 75% of students had observed some type of bullying at their school, and that bullied students were not likely to report it. They also found that the students did not perceive their teachers as being interested in bullying at the school. This is useful for me because it gives me a better understanding of bullying in school.
- Hofmann, S. G. (2010). Advances in the Research of Social Anxiety and Its Disorder (Special Section). Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 23(3), 239–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/10615801003612014
This research was conducted to further understand social anxiety disorder (SAD). The researchers found that humans naturally fear negative evaluation by their peers, and that there is a high degree of variance in SAD. This journal will be very beneficial to my project because it will help me fully understand SAD so that I can properly evaluate the effects of it.
- Holt, M., & Espelage, D. (2007). Perceived Social Support among Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims (Vol. 36). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9153-3
This study investigated relations among social support, bully/victim status, and psychological distress in a sample of ethnically diverse youth. They looked at the differences in perceived social support in different bully/victim subtypes, and the effect of social support as a protective factor among the various subtypes. They classified the participants as either uninvolved, bullies, victims, or bully-victims, and they found that the uninvolved group reported the most social support and least depression/anxiety. They also found a significant interaction between the bully/victim groups and social support, specifically individuals in the bully/victim groups who reported more social support also reported less depression/anxiety. This is beneficial for my research because it shows the effect of having a support network, which could be a contributing factor to the levels of social anxiety disorder experienced later in life.
- Holt, M. K., Green, J. G., Reid, G., DiMeo, A., Espelage, D. L., Felix, E. D., … Sharkey, J. D. (2014). Associations between past bullying experiences and psychosocial and academic functioning among college students. Journal of American College Health, 62(8), 552–560. https://doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2014.947990
This study investigated whether childhood bullying victimization is associated with both psychosocial and academic functioning at college. Participants were first-year students at a large university who completed an online survey. They found that reports of past bullying were associated with lower mental health functioning and worse perceptions of both mental and physical health. This article is important to my project because it shows that there are serious long-term effects of bullying. My study will build on their findings by specifically looking at social anxiety disorder.
- Reid, G. M., Holt, M. K., Bowman, C. E., Espelage, D. L., & Green, J. G. (2016). Perceived social support and mental health among first-year college students with histories of bullying victimization. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(11), 3331–3341. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0477-7
This study investigated whether childhood bullying victimization affects perceived social support in first-year college students. Participants were first-year college students at large universities across the United States, who completed a web survey in the fall and then a follow-up survey in the spring. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between childhood bullying victimization and depression and anxiety in first-year college students, and also that higher perceptions of social support may protect the students from anxiety during their transition into college. This article is important to my project because it shows that there are serious long-term effects of bullying. My study will build on their findings by specifically looking at social anxiety disorder.
- Stein, M. B., & Stein, D. J. (2008). Social anxiety disorder. Lancet (London, England), 371(9618), 1115–1125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60488-2
This journal article looked at research on social anxiety disorder (SAD), focusing on its prevalence, chronic and pernicious nature, and neurobiological underpinnings. The researchers found that SAD is the most common anxiety disorder, affecting 80% of individuals by the age of 20. They also found that having SAD is a risk factor for depression and substance abuse. This research is important to my study because it shows how common SAD is, and how serious the anxiety disorder actually is.
- Turner, S. M., Beidel, D. C., Dancu, C. V., & Stanley, M. A. (1989). An empirically derived inventory to measure social fears and anxiety: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory. Psychological Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 35–40. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.168
This study looked at the usefulness and development of a scale to measure social phobia. The scale that was being developed was distributed to to psychologists and psychiatrists across the United States, and they were asked to use the scale to evaluate patients with social phobia. They found that the scale was accurate in measuring behaviors in individuals with social phobia. This is beneficial for me because it shows me the types of behaviors that individuals with social phobia display, which will help me to develop my survey-questionnaire.
- Varjas, K., Henrich, C. C., & Meyers, J. (2009). Urban Middle School Students’ Perceptions of Bullying, Cyberbullying, and School Safety. Journal of School Violence, 8(2), 159–176. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220802074165
This study was conducted to examine middle school students’ perceptions of bullying, cyberbullying, and school safety. Participants were students at an urban middle school, and the study was done using the Student Survey of Bullying Behavior. The researchers found that cyberbullying and relational bullying were not associated with school safety, and that older students experienced less physical and verbal bullying. Furthermore, males reported feeling safer at school. This is important to my project because is shows the breakdown of bullying, and which types effect students more.
Literature Review Outline
- Start with a hook
- Talk about the lack of research about bullying
- Discuss why it is such an important topic
- “This study will investigate whether childhood bullying victimization is associated with social anxiety disorder in college”
- What it is → (Guerin & Hennessy, 2002)
- Types of bullying → (Rivers & Smith, 1994)
- Prevalence in middle school → (Gabel, 2007)
- Immediate → (Harris & Petrie, 2002)
- College → (Adamn & Lawrence, 2011) (Holt, Green, Reid, DiMeo, Espelage, Felix, …, & Sharkey, 2014)
- Adulthood → (Carlisle & Rofes, 2007)
- Social Anxiety Disorder
- What it is → (Stein & Stein, 2008)
- Prevalence → (Stein & Stein, 2008)
- Causes → (Neal & Edelmann, 2001)
- Impacts → (Richards, 2016)
- Social Anxiety Disorder as a Result of Bullying
- Studies which linked them together → (Hakami, Mahfouz, Adawi, Mahha, Athathi, Daghreeri, …, & Areeshi, 2018)
I.S. Symposium Day Reflection
For I.S. Symposium day I attended a few different poster presentations. The biggest thing that I noticed was the variation in the quality of the physical posters. Some of the posters had way too much writing which made it hard to pick out the important details, whereas some of the posters didn’t have nearly enough writing on them which made it difficult to get a sense of their project. This made me think about what I should do for my poster if I end up presenting on I.S. symposium day. I will need to take extreme care to ensure that i put enough text on my poster, while also not putying too much text.